Much has been written regarding the significance of the
notched bar impact testing of steels and other metallic
materials. The Charpy and Izod type test relate notch
behavior (brittleness versus ductility) by applying a single
overload of stress. The results of these tests provide
quantitive comparisons but are not convertible to energy
values useful for engineering design calculations. The
results of an individual test are related to that particular
specimen size, notch geometry and testing conditions
and cannot be generalized to other sizes of specimens
The results of these tests are useful in determining the susceptibility of a material to brittle behavior when the applied stress is perpendicular to the major stress. In externally threaded fasteners, however, the loading usually is applied in a longitudinal direction. The impact test, therefore, which should be applicable would be one where the applied impact stress supplements the major stress. Only in shear loading on fasteners is the major stress in the transverse direction.
Considerable testing has been conducted in an effort to determine if a relationship exists between the Charpy V notch properties of a material and the tension properties of an externally threaded fastener manufactured from the same material.
Some conclusions which can be drawn from the extensive impact testing are as follows:
1. The tension impact properties of externally threaded fasteners do not follow the Charpy V notch impact pat- tern.
2. Some of the variables which effect the tension impact properties are:
A. The number of exposed threads
B. The length of the fastener
C. The relationship of the fastener shank diameter to the thread area.
D. The hardness or fastener ultimate tensile strength
Following are charts showing tension impact versus Charpy impact properties, the effect of strength and diameter on tension impact properties and the effect of test temperature.
Please note from figure 21 that while the Charpy impact strength of socket head cap screw materials are decreasing at sub-zero temperatures, the tension impact strength of the same screws is increasing. This compares favorable with the effect of cryogenic temperatures on the tensile strength of the screws. Note the similar increase in tensile strength shown in figure 22.
It is recommended, therefore, that less importance be attached to Charpy impact properties of materials which are intended to be given to impact properties for threaded fasteners. If any consideration is to be given to impact properties of bolts or screws, it is advisable to investigate the tension impact properties of full size fasteners since this more closely approximates the actual application.
For Concentration-Cell Corrosion: Keep surfaces smooth and minimize or eliminate lap joints, crevices, and seams. Surfaces should be clean and free of organic material and dirt. Air trapped under a speck of dirt on the surface of the metal may form an oxygen concentration cell and start pitting.
For maximum protection, bolts and nuts should have smooth surfaces, especially in the seating areas. Flushhead bolts should be used where possible. Further, joints can be sealed with paint or other sealant material.
For Fretting Corrosion: Apply a lubricant (usually oil) to mating surfaces. Where fretting corrosion is likely to occur: 1. Specify materials of maximum practicable hardness. 2. Use fasteners that have residual compressive stresses on the surfaces that may be under attack. 3. Specify maximum preload in the joint. A higher clamping force results in a more rigid joint with less relative move- ment possible between mating services.
For Stress Corrosion: Choose a fastener material that resists stress corrosion in the service environment. Reduce fastener hardness (if reduced strength can be tolerated), since this seems to be a factor in stress corrosion.
Minimize crevices and stress risers in the bolted joint and compensate for thermal stresses. Residual stresses resulting from sudden changes in temperature accelerate stress corrosion.
If possible, induce residual compressive stresses into the surface of the fastener by shot-peening or pressure rolling.
For Corrosion Fatigue: In general, design the joint for high fatigue life, since the principal effect of this form of corrosion is reduced fatigue performance. Factors extending fatigue performance are: 1. Application and maintenance of a high preload. 2. Proper alignment to avoid bending stresses.
If the environment is severe, periodic inspection is recommended so that partial failures may be detected before the structure is endangered.
As with stress and fretting corrosion, compressive stresses induced on the fastener surfaces by thread rolling, fillet rolling, or shot peening will reduce corrosion fatigue. Further protection is provided by surface coating.
TYPES OF CORROSION
Direct Attack°most common form of corrosion affecting all metals and structural forms. It is a direct and general chemical reaction of the metal with a corrosive mediumliquid, gas, or even a solid.
Galvanic Corrosion°occurs with dissimilar metals contact. Presence of an electrolyte, which may be nothing more than an individual atmosphere, causes corrosive action in the galvanic couple. The anodic, or less noble material, is the sacrificial element. Hence, in a joint of stainless steel and titanium, the stainless steel corrodes. One of the worst galvanic joints would consist of magnesium and titanium in contact.
Concentration Cell Corrosion°takes place with metals in close proximity and, unlike galvanic corrosion, does not require dissimilar metals. When two or more areas on the surface of a metal are exposed to different concentrations of the same solution, a difference in electrical potential results, and corrosion takes place.
If the solution consists of salts of the metal itself, a metal- ion cell is formed, and corrosion takes place on the sur- faces in close contact. The corrosive solution between the two surfaces is relatively more stagnant (and thus has a higher concentration of metal ions in solution) than the corrosive solution immediately outside the crevice. A variation of the concentration cell is the oxygen cell in which a corrosive medium, such as moist air, contains different amounts of dissolved oxygen at different points. Accelerated corrosion takes place between hidden surfaces (either under the bolt head or nut, or between bolted materials) and is likely to advance without detection.
Fretting°corrosive attack or deterioration occurring between containing, highly-loaded metal surfaces sub- jected to very slight (vibratory) motion. Although the mechanism is not completely understood, it is probably a highly accelerated form of oxidation under heat and stress. In threaded joints, fretting can occur between mating threads, at the bearing surfaces under the head of the screw, or under the nut. It is most likely to occur in high tensile, high-frequency, dynamic-load applications. There need be no special environment to induce this form of corrosion...merely the presence of air plus vibra- tory rubbing. It can even occur when only one of the materials in contact is metal.
Stress Corrosion Cracking°occurs over a period of time in high-stressed, high-strength joints. Although not fully understood, stress corrosion cracking is believed to be caused by the combined and mutually accelerating effects of static tensile stress and corrosive environment. Initial pitting somehow tales place which, in turn, further increases stress build-up. The effect is cumulative and, in a highly stressed joint, can result in sudden failure. Corrosion Fatigue°accelerated fatigue failure occurring in the presence of a corrosive medium. It differs from stress corrosion cracking in that dynamic alternating stress, rather than static tensile stress, is the contributing agent.
Corrosion fatigue affects the normal endurance limit of the bolt. The conventional fatigue curve of a normal bolt joint levels off at its endurance limit, or maximum dynamic load that can be sustained indefinitely without fatigue failure. Under conditions of corrosion fatigue, however, the curve does not level off but continues downward to a point of failure at a finite number of stress cycles.